I started to promote GoHitchhike.com on American colleges International Student Association websites. Here are the lists of CSA (Chinese Students Association) and TSA (Taiwanese Students Association)
Mr.6, a famous Chinese blog focuses on new trend of websites and e-commence, reported GoHitchhike.com.
Frank Spillers from Experience Dynamics
“Shipping and receiving wastes are wastes that are generated while transporting goods from a manufacturer to a user or from one facility location to another.” (Shipping and Receiving Operations) The wastes are packaging materials including cardboard boxes, tape, wrapping materials, pallets, plastic containers and etc…”Corrugated paper products represent the largest percentage of shipping and receiving wastes, with more than 25 billion boxes generated annually. Shipping and receiving wastes comprise nearly one-third of the total U.S. municipal solid waste stream and typically account for much of the waste generated by government agencies and companies.” (Shipping and Receiving Operations)
For eco-friendly purposes, reducing shipping and receiving wastes will conserve natural resources because many wastes are made of timber-delivered products. Meanwhile, most of these wastes are land filled and packaging materials are usually bulky. Reducing these materials helps extend the lifespan of landfills.
The way of reducing shipping and receiving wastes is to eliminate unnecessary packaging materials including choosing matched packaging materials for products’ size, weight, shape, and property.
Once I ordered a hard drive without case on Neweggs.com, and I received a cardboard box, which is four times the dimension of the hard drive, within hundreds of polylon balls to protect the hard drive inside a plastic container. I was surprised that this package wasted so much on materials and shipping space. Instead of a huge cardboard box within lots of polylon balls, a bubble bag matched the size of the hard drive did the same job and reduced packaging wastes (Shipping and Receiving Operations).
Requesters ask travelers from GoHitchhike to bring wanted items, and travelers give items to requesters face-to-face. Travelers carry items through flights directly, so there are no packaging wastes from shipping companies. Meanwhile, travelers only have limited space for items. In order to save space, travelers usually remove unnecessary packaging materials or even travel without packaging.
I found an article about “Total Cost of Parcel Packaging and Shipping” on Mozula Technologies. It listed total cost of shipping a parcel includes:
1. Labor Costs: Spend time selecting a suitable box and packaging a good.
2. Material Costs: Cost of shipping box, packing materials, and printing labels.
3. Shipment Costs: Shipping fee and fuel surcharges.
4. Environmental Costs: Corrugated waste, packaging material waste, and fuel usage.
5. Shipping Cart Abandonment: overdue delivery effects business
Paper based on a program presented at the 2009 American Counseling Association Annual Conference and Exposition, March 19-23, Charlotte, North Carolina. By Karen Kegel
Yet the nature of homesickness remains elusive. The research community still has not reached consensus on an exact definition. Many conceptualizations include a missed home environment in addition to missed significant persons. Problems assimilating new experiences and maladaptation to a new environment also feed homesickness. Some researchers have encapsulated homesickness in five factors: missing family, missing friends, feeling lonely, adjustment problems, and home ruminations .
– Homesickness can also be considered a “mini grief” whereby relocation and adjustment to college life may turn into significant stressors when resources and coping strategies are lacking.
– Social connectedness negatively correlates with both acculturative stress and homesickness among international students.
– A negative correlation has been established between acculturative stress and social support.
– Mori (2000) avers that creating a support system of co-nationals is crucial for international students’ well-being, but that often low numbers of home country students limits interaction.
– Poyrazli et al. (2004) found that international students in the
Unites States who principally socialized with other international students had greater acculturative stress.
– Such students reported less social support overall as well as higher acculturative stress than students who interacted with Americans and non-Americans in a more balanced fashion (Poyrazli et al., 2004).
– Furthermore, international students whose actual lived experiences measure short of their expectations report significantly more homesickness (McKinlay, Pattison, & Gross, 1996).
Data suggest too that the more differences between international students’ home and host cultures, the more homesickness and acculturative stress experienced (Ye, 2005). Accordingly, Asian international students consistently report greater acculturative stress than European international students in the United States (Yeh&Inose, 2003; Poyrazli et al., 2004; Wei et al., 2007). The researcher maintains that stronger family connections in the Chinese culture may have contributed to this widespread homesickness (1990).
African students reported significantly more acculturative stress than either Asian or Latin American students (Constantine, Okazaki, & Utsey, 2004). African students also reported more depression and more self-concealment behaviors than the other groups (Constantine et al., 2004). Based on a qualitative study, Constantine et al. (2005) concluded that African international students’ cultural backgrounds may place more value and emphasis on close interpersonal relationships than does American culture—and that possession of communal and interdependent self-concepts may engender homesickness.
Although Latin American international students reported less acculturative stress than their African peers in the study by Constantine et al. (2004), this group still reported significantly more acculturative stress than Asian international students. Latin American students also demonstrated higher levels of psychological distress compared with Asian students in a separate study (Wilton & Constantine, 2003). Yet Latin American international students have reported greater social self-efficacy than either their African or Asian international peers (Constantine et al., 2004).
Underrepresentation on campus may help explain the relatively high rates of homesickness among African international students and the disparity between homesickness and social self-efficacy in Latin American international students (Constantine et al., 2004;Wilton & Constantine, 2003).